The Osage





In the Osage nation there are three primary divisions, which are tribes in

the original acceptation of that term. These are known as the Tsi{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}u utse

pecun*d*a, the Seven Tsi{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}u fireplaces, Han{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a utsse pecu*d*a, the Seven

Han{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a fireplaces, and Wa{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}a{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}e utse pecu*d*a, the Seven Osage fireplaces.

Each fireplace is a gens, so that there are twenty-one gentes in the

Osage nation. The Seven Han{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a fireplaces were the last to join the nation,

according to the tradition of the Tsi{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}u wacta{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}e people. When this

occurred, the seven Han{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a gentes were reckoned as five, and the seven

Osage gentes as two, in order to have not more than seven gentes on the

right side of the tribal circle.



At first the Han{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a utacantse gens had seven pipes, and the Wa{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}a{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}e had as

many. The Wa{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}a{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}e gave their seventh pipe to the Tsi{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}u, with the right to

make seven pipes from it, so now the Wa{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}a{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}e people have but six pipes,

though they retain the ceremonies pertaining to the seventh.









When there is sickness among the children on the Wa{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}a{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}e or right (war)

side of the circle, their parents apply to the Tsi{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}u (Tsi{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}u wacta{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}e?) for

food for them. In like manner, when the children on the left or Tsi{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}u side

are ill, their parents apply to the Panhka (wactaqe?), on the other side,

in order to get food for them.



The Seven Tsi{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}u fireplaces occupy the left or peace side of the circle.

Their names are:



1. Tsi{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}u Sintsa{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}ce, Tsi{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}u-wearing-a-tail (of hair)-on-the-head; also

called Tsi{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}u Wanun', Elder Tsi{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}u; in two subgentes, Sintsa{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}ce, Sun and

Comet people, and Cun{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}e i'nik'acin'a, Wolf people.



2. Tse {~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED T~}u'{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a intse', Buffalo-bull face; in two subgentes, of which the

second is Tse' canka' or Min'paha', Hide-with-the-hair-on. The policemen

or soldiers on the left side belong to these two gentes.



3. Min k'in', Sun carriers, i.e., Carry-the-snn (or Buffalo

hides)-on-their-backs. These have two subgentes, a, Mini'ni{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED H~}k'acin'a,

Sun people; b, Minxa' ska i'ni{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED H~}k'acin'a, Swan people,



4. Tsi'{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}u wacta'{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}e, Tsi{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}u peacemaker, or Tan'wan{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a'xe, Village-maker, or,

Ni'wace, Giver of life. These have two subgentes, a, Wapin it'a'{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}i,

Touches-no-blood, or Queca' {~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}ue'tse, Red-eagle (really a hawk); b, Queca'

pa san', Bald-eagle, or Oansan'u'ni{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED H~}k'acin'a, Sycamore people, the leading

gens on the left side of the circle.



5. Han i'ni{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED H~}k'acin'a, Night people, or Tsi'{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}u we'ha{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}ice, the

Tsi{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}u-at-the-end, or Tse'canka'. Their two subgentes are: a, Night

people proper; b, Wasa'*d*e, Black-bear people.



6. Tse {~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED T~}u'{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a, Buffalo bull. In two subgentes, a, Tse {~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED T~}u'{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a, Buffalo

bull; b, cu'qe, Reddish-yellow buffalo (corresponding to the Nuqe of the

Ponka, Tuqe of the Quapaw, and Yuqe of the Kansa).



7. {~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}cun, Thunder-being, or Tsi'hacin, Camp-last, or Ma'xe, Upper-world

people, or Ni{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED H~}'ka wakan'{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED T~}a{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}i, Mysterious-male-being. Subgentes not

recorded.



On the right (Han{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a or Wa{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}a{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}e) side of the circle are the following:



8. Wa{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}a'{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}e Wanun', Elder Osage, composed of six of the seven Osage

fireplaces, as follows: a, Wa{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}a'{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}e ska', White Osage; b, Ke k'in',

Turtle-carriers; c, Wake'ce ste'tse, Tall-flags(?), Ehnan' min'tse tun',

They-alone-have-bows, or Minke'ce ste'tse, Tall-flags; d, Ta ca'xue,

Deer-lights, or Ta i'ni{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED H~}k'acin'a, Deer people; e, Hu i'niqk'acin'a, Fish

people; f, Nan'panta, a deer gens, called by some Ke {~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a'tsue,

Turtle-with-a-serrated-crest-along-the-shell (probably a water monster, as

there is no such species of turtle).



9. Han'{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a uta'cantsi, Han{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a-apart-from-the-rest, or Queca'qtsi

i'ni{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED H~}-k'acin'a, Real eagle people--the War eagle gens, and one of the

original Han{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a fireplaces. The soldiers or policemen from the right side

are chosen from the eighth and ninth gentes.



10. The leading gens on the right side of the circle, and one of the

original seven Osage fireplaces. Pan{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED H~}'ka wacta'{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}e, Ponka peace-maker,

according to a Tsi{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}u man; in two subgentes, a, Tse'wace, Pond-lily, and

b, Waca'*d*e, Dark-buffalo; but according to Pan{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED H~}'ka wa{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED T~}a'yin{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a, a

member of the gens, his people have three subgentes, a, Wake'ce, Flags;

b, Wa'tsetsi, meaning, perhaps, Has-come hither

(tsi)-after-touching-the-foe (watse); c, Quntse', Red cedar.



11. Han'{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a a'hue tun', Han{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a-having-wings, or Hue'sa{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED T~}a,

Limbs-stretched-stiff, or Quec i'ni{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED H~}k'acin'a, White-eagle people, in two

subgentes, which were two of the original Han{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a fireplaces: a, Hue'sa{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED T~}a

Wanun', Elder Huesa{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED T~}a; b, Hue'sa{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED T~}a, those wearing four locks of hair

resembling those worn by the second division of the Wasape tun.



12. Wasa'*d*e tun, Having-black-bears. In two parts, which were originally

two of the Han{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a fireplaces: A, Sintsa{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}cse, Wearing-a-tail- (or

lock)-of-hair-on-the-head; in two subgentes, (a) Wasa*d*e, Black bear,

or Han'{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a Wa'ts'ekawa' (meaning not learned); (b) In{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}cun'{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a {~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}iu'{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a,

Small cat. B, Wasa'*d*e tun, Wearing-four-locks-of-hair, in two subgentes,

(a) Minxa'ska, Swan; (b) Tse'wace qe'{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a, Dried pond-lily.



13. U'pqan, Elk, one of the seven Han{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a fireplaces.



14. Kan'se, Kansa, or I'*d*ats'e,

Holds-a-firebrand-to-the-sacred-pipes-in-order-to-light-them, or A'k'a

i'ni{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED H~}ak'acin'a, South-wind people, or Tatse' i'ni{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED H~}k'acin'a, Wind people,

or Pe'tse i'ni{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED H~}k'acin'a, Fire people. One of the seven Han{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a fireplaces.



The following social divisions cannot be identified: Oa'*d*e

i'ni{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED H~}k'acin'a, Beaver people, said to be a subgens of the Wa{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}a{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}e, no gens

specified; Pe'tqan i'ni{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED H~}k'acin'a, Crane people, said to be a subgens of

the Han{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a(?) sintsa{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}ce; Wapun'{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a i'ni{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED H~}k'acin'a, Owl people; Manyin'{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a

i'ni{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED H~}k'acin'a, Earth people; *d*aqpue' i'ni{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED H~}k'acin'a, meaning not recorded.



There is some uncertainty respecting the true positions of a few subgentes

in the camping circle. For instance, Alvin Wood said that the Tsewace qe{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a

formed the fourth subgens of the Tse {~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED T~}u'{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a intse; but this was denied by

{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}ahi{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}e wa{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED T~}ayin{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a, of the Tsi'{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}u wacta'{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}e, who said that it belonged to the

Pan{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED H~}ka wacta{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}e prior to the extinction of the subgens. Tsepa {~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}axe of the

Wasape gens said that it formed the fourth subgens of his own people. Some

make the Tsi{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}u wacta{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}e the third gens on the left, instead of the fourth.

According to {~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}ahi{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}e wa{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED T~}ayin{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a, All the Wa{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}a{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}e gentes claim to have come

from the water, so they have ceremonies referring to beavers, because

those animals swim in the water. The same authority said in 1883 that

there were seven men who acted as wacta{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}e, as follows: 1, Ka{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED H~}i{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}e wacta{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}e,

of the Tsi{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}u wacta{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}e subgens, who had acted for eight years; 2, Pahue-ska,

of the Bald-eagle or Queca pa san subgens; 3, {~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}ceman, Clermont, of the

ki*d*anan of the Tsi{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}u wehakice or Night gens; 6, Pan{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED H~}ka wa{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED T~}ayin{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a, Saucy

Ponka, of the Wa'tsetsi or Ponka gens; 7, Ni{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED H~}ka wa{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}in tana, of the same

gens.



On the death of the head chief among the Osage the leading men call a

council. At this council four men are named as candidates for the office,

and it is asked, Which one shall be appointed? At this council a cuka of

the Watsetsi (Ponka gens, or else from some other gens on the right)

carries his pipe around the circle of councilors from right to left, while

a Tsi{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}u cuka (one of the Tsi{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}u wacta{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}e gens, or else one from some other

gens on the left) carries the other pipe around from left to right. The

ceremonies resemble the Ponka ceremonies for making chiefs. When the

chiefs assemble in council a member of the Kanse or I*d*ats'e gens (one on

the right) lights the pipes. The criers are chosen from the Kanse, Upqan,

and Min k'in gentes. The Tsi{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}u Sintsa{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}ce and Tse {~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED T~}u{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a intse gentes furnish

the soldiers or policemen for the Tsi{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}u wacta{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}e. A similar function is

performed for the Pan{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED H~}ka wacta{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}e by the Wa{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}a{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}e wanun and Han{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a u{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED T~}acantsi

gentes. The Sintsa{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}ce and Han{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a u{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED T~}acautsi are aki{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED T~}a watan{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a, chiefs of

the soldiers; the Tse{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED T~}u{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a intse and Wa{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}a{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}e Wanun being ordinary soldiers,

i.e., subordinate to the others. The Wa{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}a{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}e Ke k'in are the moccasin

makers for the tribe. It is said that in the olden days the members of

this gens used turtle shells instead of moccasins, with leeches for

strings. The makers of the war-standards and war-pipes must belong to the

Wa{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}a{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}e ska.



Saucy Chief is the authority for the following: Should all the Osage wish

to dwell very near another tribe, or in case two or three families of us

wish to remove to another part of the reservation, we let the others know

our desire to live near them. We make up prizes for them--a pony, a

blanket, strouding, etc--and we ask them to race for them. The fastest

horse takes the first prize, and so on. We take along a pipe and some

sticks--one stick for each member of the party that is removing. The other

people meet us and race with us back to their home. They make us sit in a

row; then one of their men or children brings a pipe to one of our party

to whom he intends giving a horse. The pipe is handed to the rest of the

party. The newcomers are invited to feasts, all of which they are obliged

to attend. When the Osage go on the hunt the Tsi{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}u wacta{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}e (chief) tells

the Sintsa{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}ce and Tse {~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED T~}u{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a intse where the people must camp. The following

evening the Pan{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED H~}ka wacta{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}e (chief) tells the soldiers on his side (the

Wa{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}a{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}e and Han{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a u{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED T~}acantsi) where the camp must be on the following day.

The members of the four gentes of soldiers or policemen meet in council

and decide on the time for departure. They consult the Tsi{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}u wacta{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}e and

Han{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a (Pan{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED H~}ka wacta{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}e?) who attend the council. The crier is generally a

man of either the Upqan or Kanse gens, but sometimes a Min k'in man acts.

The four leaders of the soldier gentes call on the crier to proclaim the

next camping place, etc, which he does thus:



Ha+! han'*d*a {~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}asin'{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED T~}an awahe'{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}un tatsi' a'pin{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED T~}au+! Ha+!

(Ni{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}ue'tse masin'ta)



Halloo! day tomorrow on you make up in packs shall

they really say Halloo! Missouri river on the other side



tci' i'heca'e ta'tsi a'*d*intau+!



tent {?} you place in a line {?} shall they really say.



which is to say, Halloo! tomorrow morning you shall pack your goods

(strike camp). Halloo! you shall lay them down, after reaching (the other

side of Missouri river)!



Then the four leaders of the soldier gentes choose a'ki{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED T~}a (policemen) who

have a {~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED T~}u{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED T~}an'han{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a or captain, who then acts as crier in giving orders,

thus:



Ha+! ni'kawasa'e! Ha+! {~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}ahi'{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}e wa{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED T~}a'yin{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a ni'kawasa'e!

a'caki'{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED T~}a tatsi'



Halloo! O warrior! Halloo, Chief Saucy! O

warrior! you guard shall



a*d*intau' ni'kawasa'e!



they say really O warrior!



which means, Halloo, O warrior! Halloo, O warrior, Saucy Chief! They have

really said that you shall act as policeman or guard, O warrior!



These a'ki{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED T~}a have to punish any persons who violate the laws of the hunt.

But there is another grade of men; the four leaders of the soldier gentes

tell the captain to call certain men wa'pa{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}ca'{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}i utsin', and they are

expected to punish any a'ki{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED T~}a who fail to do their duty. Supposing Min

k'in wa{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED T~}ayin{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a was selected, the crier would say:



Ha+! ni'kawasa'e! Ha+, Min k'in' wa{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED T~}a'yin{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a n'ikawasa'e! Ha+! uca'tsin

tatsi' a'*d*intau', ni'kawasa'e!



Halloo, O warrior! Halloo, O warrior, Saucy Sun Carrier! Halloo, it has

been really said that you shall strike the offenders without hesitation, O

warrior!



The four headmen direct a captain to order a Han{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a u{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED T~}acantsi man to lead

the scouts, and subsequently to call on a Sintsa{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}ce man for that purpose,

alternating between the two sides of the camping circle. There are thus

three grades of men engaged in the hunt--the ordinary members of the

soldier gentes, the aki{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED T~}a, and the wapa{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}ca{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}i utsin.



Should the Osage be warring against the Kansa or any other tribe, and one

of the foe slip into the Osage camp and beg for protection of the Tsi{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}u

wacta{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}e (chief), the latter is obliged to help the suppliant. He must send

for the Sintsa{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}ce and Tse {~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED T~}u{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a intse (leaders), whom he would thus

address: I have a man whom I wish to live. I desire you to act as my

soldiers. At the same time the Tsi{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}u wacta{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}e would send word to the

Pan{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED H~}ka wacta{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}e, who would summon a Wa{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}a{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}e and a Han{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}a utacantsi to act as

his soldiers or policemen. Meantime the kettle of the Tsi{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}u wacta{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}e was

hung over the fire as soon as possible and food was cooked and given to

the fugitive. When he had eaten (a mouthful) he was safe. He could then go

through the camp with impunity. This condition of affairs lasted as long

as he remained with the tribe, but it terminated when he returned to his

home. After food had been given to the fugitive by the Tsi{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}u wacta{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}e any

prominent man of the tribe could invite the fugitive to a feast.



The privilege of taking care of the children was given to the Tsi{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}u

wacta{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}e and the Pan{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED H~}ka wacta{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}e, according to Saucy Chief. When a child (on

the Tsi{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}u side) is named, a certain old man is required to sing songs

outside of the camp, dropping some tobacco from his pipe down on the toes

of his left foot as he sings each song. On the first day the old man of

the Tsi{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}u (wacta{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}e?) takes four grains of corn, one grain being black,

another red, a third blue, and a fourth white, answering to the four kinds

of corn dropped by the four buffalo, as mentioned in the tradition of the

Osage. After chewing the four grains and mixing them with his saliva, he

passes them between the lips of the child to be named. Four stones are put

into a fire, one stone toward each of the four quarters. The Tsi{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}u old man

orders some cedar and a few blades of a certain kind of grass that does

not die in winter, to be put aside for his use on the second day. On the

second day, before sunrise, the Tsi{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}u old man speaks of the cedar tree and

its branches, saying, It shall be for the children. Then he mentions the

river, the deep holes in it, and its branches, which he declares shall be

medicine in future for the children. He takes the four heated stones,

places them in a pile, on which he puts the grass and cedar. Over this he

pours water, making steam, over which the child is held. Then four names

are given by the headman of the gens to the father, who selects one of

them as the name for the child. Meantime men of different gentes bring

cedar, stones, etc, and perform their respective ceremonies. The headman

(Tsi{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}u wacta{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}e?) takes some of the water (into which he puts some cedar),

giving four sips to the child. Then he dips his own left hand into the

water and rubs the child down the left side, from the top of the head to

the feet; next he rubs it in front, then down the right side, and finally

down the back. He invites all the women of his gens who wish to be blessed

to come forward, and he treats them as he did the infant. At the same time

the women of the other gentes are blessed in like manner by the headmen of

their respective gentes.





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