a, as in father.

'a, an initially exploded a.

a, as in what, or as o in not.

'a, an initially exploded a.

ae, as in hat.

c, as sh in she. See s.

{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}, a medial sh, a sonant-surd

c (Dakota letter), as ch in church.

c, as th in thin.


c, as th in the.

e, as in they.

'e, an initially exploded e.

e, as in get.

'e, an initially exploded e.

g, as in go.

g (in Dakota), gh. See x.

{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED H~} (in Osage), an h after a pure or nasalized vowel, expelled through the

mouth with the lips wide apart.

h (in Dakota), kh, etc. See q.

i, as in machine.

'i, an initially exploded i.

i, as in pin.

j, as z in azure, or as j in the French Jacques.

{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K~}, a medial k, a sonant-surd,

k', an exploded k. See next letter.

k (in Dakota), an exploded k.

{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED M~} (in Kansa), a medial m, a sound between m and b.

n (in Dakota), after a vowel has the sound of n in the French bon. See


n, as ng in sing.

hn, its initial sound is expelled from the nostrils and is scarcely heard.

o, as in no.

'o, an initially exploded o.

*d*, a medial b or p, a sonant-surd.

p', an exploded p.

q, as German ch in ach. See h.

*s*, a medial z or s, a sonant-surd.

s (in Dakota), as sh in she. See c.

{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED T~}, a medial d or t, a sonant-surd.

t', an exploded t.

u, as oo in tool.

'u, an initially exploded u.

u, as oo in foot.

u{~COMBINING MACRON BELOW~}, a sound between o and u.

ue, as in German kuehl, suess.

x, gh, or nearly the Arabic ghain. See g.

z (in Dakota), as z in azure. See j.

dj, as j in judge.

tc, as ch in church. See c.

tc', an exploded tc.

{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED T~}{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}, a medial tc, a sonant-surd.

ts', an exploded ts.

{~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED T~}s, a medial ts, a sonant-surd.

ai, as in aisle.

au, as ow in how.

yu, as u in tune, or ew in few.

The following have the ordinary English sounds: b, d, h, k, l, m, n, p, r,

s, t, w, y, and z. A superior n (n) after a vowel (compare the Dakota n)

has the sound of the French n in bon, vin, etc. A plus sign (+) after

any letter prolongs it.

The vowels 'a, 'e, 'i, 'o, 'u, and their modifications are styled

initially exploded vowels for want of a better appellation, there being in

each case an initial explosion. These vowels are approximately or

partially pectoral sounds found in the Siouan languages and also in some

of the languages of western Oregon and in the language of the Hawaiian


2 _cegiha_ (_people Dwelling Here_)(9) Cegiha facebooktwittergoogle_plusredditpinterestlinkedinmail