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Toiwe're
The Waqpe-kute
3 _{~latin Small Letter Turned T~}{~latin Small Letter Open O~}iwe´re_ (_people Of This Place_)
9 _catawba Or Ni-ya (people)_
The Osage
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2 _cegiha_ (_people Dwelling Here_)(9)
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Tribal Nomenclature



The Hotcangara Or Winnebago





The Winnebago call themselves Ho-tcan'-ga-ra', First or parent speech.
While they have gentes, they have no camping circle, as their priscan
habitat was in a forest region. The following names were obtained from
James Alexander, a full-blood of the Wolf gens, and from other members of
the tribe:

1. Wolf gens--Common name, Cunk i-ki'-ka-ra'-tca-da, or
Cunk-tcank'i-ki'-ka-ra'-tca-da,
Those-calling-themselves-after-the-dog-or-wolf; archaic name,
ce-go'-ni-na, meaning not recorded.

2. Black-bear gens--Common name, Honte' i-ki'-ka-ra'-tca-da,
They-call-themselves-after-the-black-bear; archaic name, Tco'-na-ke-ra,,
meaning not recorded.

3. Elk gens--Common name, Hu-wan'-i-ki'-ka-ra'-tca-da,
They-callthemselves-after-the-elk; archaic name not recorded.

4. Snake gens--Common name, Wa-kan' i-ki'-ka-ra'-tca-da,
They-call-themselves-after-a-snake; archaic name not recorded.

5. Bird gens--Common name, Wa-nick' i-ki'-ka-ra'-tca-da,
They-call-themselves-after-a-bird; archaic name not recorded. This gens is
composed of four subgentes, as follows: (a) Hi-tca-qce-pa-ra, or Eagle;
(b) Ru-tcke, or Pigeon; (c) Ke-re-tcun, probably Hawk; (d)
Wa-kan'-tca-ra, or Thunderbird. The archaic names of the subgentes were
not recorded.

6. Buffalo gens--Common name, Tce' i-ki'-ka-ra'-tca-da,
They-call-themselves-after-a-buffalo; archaic name not recorded.

7. Deer gens--Common name, Tca' i-ki'-ka-ra'-tca-da,
They-call-themselves-after-a-deer; archaic name not recorded.

8. Water-monster gens--Common name, Wa-ktce'-qi i-ki'-ka-ra'-tca-da,
They-call-themselves-after-a-water-monster; archaic name not recorded.

Some of the Winnebago say that there is an Omaha gens among the Winnebago
of Wisconsin, but James Alexander knew nothing about it. It is very
probable that each Winnebago gens was composed of four subgentes; thus, in
the tradition of the Winnebago Wolf gens, there is an account of four
kinds of wolves, as in the corresponding Iowa tradition.

The Winnebago lodges were always built with the entrances facing the east.
When the warriors returned from a fight they circumambulated the lodge
four times, sunwise, stopping at the east just before entering.

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