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The Asiniboin





The Asiniboin were originally part of the Wazi-kute gens of the Yanktonai
(Ihanktonwanna) Dakota. According to the report of E.T. Denig to Governor
I.I. Stevens,(5) the Asiniboin call themselves Dakota, meaning Our
people. The Dakota style them Hohe, rebels, but Denig says the term
signifies fish eaters, and that they may have been so called from the
fact that they subsisted principally on fish while in British territory.

Lists of the gentes of this people have been recorded by Denig,
Maximilian, and Hayden, but in the opinion of the present writer they need
revision.

Asiniboin gentes

Denig Maximilian Hayden
We-che-ap-pe-nah, Itschcabine, Les Wi-ic-ap-i-nah,
60 lodges, under gens des filles. Girls' band.
Les Yeux Gris
E-an-to-ah, Stone Jatonabine, Les I'-an-to'-an.
Indians, the gens des roches, Either Inyan
original the Stone Indians tonwan, Stone
appellation for of the English. Village or
the whole nation; Call themselves Ihanktonwan, End
50 lodges, under Eascab. village or
Premier qui Voile. Yankton. J.O.D.)
Wah-to-pan-ah, Otaopabine, Les Wah-to'-pap-i-nah
Canoe Indians, 100 gens des canots.
lodges, under
Serpent.
Wah-to-pah-han-da-toh, Watopachnato, Les Wah-to'-pah-an-da-to,
Old Gauche's gens, gens de l'age. Gens du Gauche or
i.e., Those who Left Hand.
row in canoes; 100
lodges, under
Trembling Hand.
Wah-ze-ah we-chas-ta, O-see-gah (of Wah-zi-ah, or
Northern People (so Lewis and Clark, To-kum-pi, Gens du
called because they Discoveries, p. Nord.
came from the north in 43, 1806).
1839); 60 lodges,
under Le Robe de Vent.

The following gentes have not been collated: Of Maximilian's list,
Otopachgnato, les gens du large, possibly a duplication, by mistake, of
Watopachnato, les gens de l'age; Tschantoga, les gens des bois;
Tanin-tauei, les gens des osayes; Chabin, les gens des montagnes. Of
Hayden's list, Min'-i-shi-nak'-a-to, gens du lac.

The correct form in the Yankton dialect of the first name is Witcinyanpina
(Wicinyanpina), girls; of the second, probably Inyantonwan (Inyan tonwan);
the third and fourth gentes derive their names from the verb watopa, to
paddle a canoe; the fifth is Waziya witcacta (Waziya wicasta). Tschan in
Tschantoga is the German notation of the Dakota tcan (can), tree, wood.
Cha in Chabin is the German notation of the Dakota word he, a high ridge
of hills, a mountain.

In his report to Governor Stevens, from which the following information
respecting the Asiniboin is condensed, Denig used the term band to
denote a gens of the tribe, and clans instead of corporations, under
which latter term are included the feasting and dancing societies and the
orders of doctors, shamans, or theurgists.

These bands are distinct and occupy different parts of the country,
although they readily combine when required by circumstances, such as
scarcity of game or an attack by a large body of the enemy.

The roving tribes call no general council with other nations; indeed, they
are suspicious even of those with whom they have been at peace for many
years, so that they seldom act together in a large body. With the
exception of the Hidatsa, Mandau, and Arikara, who are stationary and live
in a manner together, the neighboring tribes are quite ignorant of one
another's government, rarely knowing even the names of the principal
chiefs and warriors.

In all these tribes there is no such thing as hereditary rank. If a son of
a chief is wanting in bravery, generosity, or other desirable qualities,
he is regarded merely as an ordinary individual; at the same time it is
true that one qualification for the position of chief consists in having a
large number of kindred in the tribe or gens. Should there be two or more
candidates, equally capable and socially well connected, the question
would be decided on the day of the first removal of the camp, or else in
council by the principal men. In the former case, each man would follow
the leader whom he liked best, and the smaller body of Indians would soon
adhere to the majority.

Women are never acknowledged as chiefs, nor have they anything to say in
the council. A chief would be deposed for any conduct causing general
disgust or dissatisfaction, such as incest (marrying within his gens) or
lack of generosity. Though crime in the abstract would not tend to create
dissatisfaction with a chief, yet if he murdered, without sufficient
cause, one whose kindred were numerous, a fight between the two bodies of

kindred would result and an immediate separation of his former adherents
would ensue; but should the murdered person be without friends, there
would be no attempt to avenge the crime, and the people would fear the
chief only the more. To preserve his popularity a chief must give away all
his property, and he is consequently always the poorest man in the band;
but he takes care to distribute his possessions to his own kindred or to
the rich, from whom he might draw in times of need.

The duties of a leading chief are to study the welfare of his people, by
whom he is regarded as a father, and whom he addresses as his children. He
must determine where the camp should be placed and when it should be
moved; when war parties are advisable and of whom they should be
composed--a custom radically different from that of the Omaha and
Ponka,--and all other matters of like character. Power is tacitly committed
to the leading chief, to be held so long as he governs to general
satisfaction, subject, however, to the advice of the soldiers. Age,
debility, or any other natural defect, or incapacity to act, advise, or
command, would lead a chief to resign in favor of a younger man.

When war is deemed necessary, any chief, soldier, or brave warrior has the
privilege of raising and leading a war party, provided he can get
followers. The powers of a warrior and civil chief may be united in one
person, thus differing from the Omaha and Ponka custom. The leading chief
may and often does lead the whole band to war; in fact, it devolves on him
to lead any general expedition.

The Akitcita (Akicita), soldiers or guards (policemen), form an important
body among the Asiniboin as they do among the other Siouan tribes. These
soldiers, who are chosen from the band on account of their bravery, are
from 25 to 45 years of age, steady, resolute, and respected; and in them
is vested the power of executing the decisions of the council. In a camp
of 200 lodges these soldiers would number from 50 to 60 men; their lodge
is pitched in the center of the camp and is occupied by some of them all
the time, though the whole body is called together only when the chief
wishes a public meeting or when their hunting regulations are to be
decided. In their lodge all tribal and intertribal business is transacted,
and all strangers, both white men and Indians, are domiciled. The young
men, women, and children are not allowed to enter the soldiers' lodge
during the time that tribal matters are being considered, and, indeed,

they are seldom, if ever, seen there. All the choicest parts of meat and
the tongues of animals killed in hunting are reserved for the soldiers'
lodge, and are furnished by the young men from time to time. A tax is
levied on the camp for the tobacco smoked there, which is no small
quantity, and the women are obliged to furnish wood and water daily. This
lodge corresponds in some degree to the two sacred lodges of the Hanga
gens of the Omaha.

Judging from the meager information which we possess concerning the
Asiniboin kinship system, the latter closely resembles that of the Dakota
tribes, descent being in the male line. After the smallpox epidemic of
1838, only 400 thinly populated lodges out of 1,000 remained, relationship
was nearly annihilated, property lost, and but few, the very young and
very old, were left to mourn the loss. Remnants of bands had to be
collected and property acquired, and several years elapsed ere the young
people were old enough to marry.

The names of the wife's parents are never pronounced by the husband; to do
so would excite the ridicule of the whole camp. The husband and the
father-in-law never look on each other if they can avoid it, nor do they
enter the same lodge. In like manner the wife never addresses her
father-in-law.

A plurality of wives is required by a good hunter, since in the labors of
the chase women are of great service to their husbands. An Indian with one
wife can not amass property, as she is constantly occupied in household
labors, and has no time for preparing skins for trading. The first wife
and the last are generally the favorites, all others being regarded as
servants. The right of divorce lies altogether with the husband; if he has
children by his wife, he seldom puts her away. Should they separate, all
the larger children--those who require no further care--remain with the
father, the smaller ones departing with the mother. When the women have no
children they are divorced without scruple.

After one gets acquainted with Indians the very opposite of taciturnity
exists. The evenings are devoted to jests and amusing stories and the days
to gambling. The soldiers' lodge, when the soldiers are not in session, is
a very theater of amusement; all sorts of jokes are made and obscene
stories are told, scarcely a woman in the camp escaping the ribaldry; but
when business is in order decorum must prevail.

The personal property of these tribes consists chiefly of horses.
Possession of an article of small value is a right seldom disputed, if the
article has been honestly obtained; but the possession of horses being
almost the principal object in life of an Indian of the plains, the
retention of them is a matter of great uncertainty, if he has not the
large force necessary to defend them. Rights to property are based on the
method of acquirement, as (1) articles found; (2) those made by themselves
(the sole and undisputed property of the makers); (3) those stolen from
enemies, and (4) those given or bought. Nothing is given except with a
view to a gift in return. Property obtained by gambling is held by a very
indefinite tenure.

Murder is generally avenged by the kindred of the deceased, as among the
Omaha and Ponka. Goods, horses, etc, may be offered to expiate the crime,
when the murderer's friends are rich in these things, and sometimes they
are accepted; but sooner or later the kindred of the murdered man will try
to avenge him. Everything except loss of life or personal chastisement can
be compensated among these Indians. Rape is nearly unknown, not that the
crime is considered morally wrong, but the punishment would be death, as
the price of the woman would be depreciated and the chances of marriage
lessened. Besides, it would be an insult to her kindred, as implying
contempt of their feelings and their power of protection. Marriage within
the gens is regarded as incest and is a serious offense.





Next: The Omaha

Previous: Dakota Social Customs



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